Until 1850, the only timber taken down the Ottawa river was square timber. It was floated in rafts down to Quebec City, to be exported to the British market [Blyth 1925]. Squared pine timber rafts were comprised of cribs small enough to pass down the timber slides built at the Chaudière falls in Bytown. The rafts were broken up and reassembled at each such passage, and the men ate and slept on the rafts [Taylor 1986]. The raftsmen steered with long oars [Adams 1981].